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Konfigurasi Server menggunakan Linux Debian

Oktober 30th, 2015 | Posted by Ahmad Mudzakkir Nurhuda in Komputer


Berikut Penjelasan dari Video diatas :

  1. Tahap menginstall Debian Server
  2. Tahap menginstall DNS serta konfigurasinya
  3. Tahap mengkonfigurasi Mail server serta webmail
  4. Tahap Uji Coba pada Client

Configure The Network
Karena sistem di konfigurasi DHCP maka sekarang konfigurasi network di set static karena server harus mengunakan ip static:
vi /etc/network/interfaces
# This file describes the network interfaces available on your system
# and how to activate them. For more information, see interfaces(5).

# The loopback network interface
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

# The primary network interface
#allow-hotplug eth0
#iface eth0 inet dhcp
auto eth0
iface eth0 inet static
Then restart your network:
/etc/init.d/networking restart
Then edit /etc/hosts. Make it look like this:
vi /etc/hosts localhost.localdomain localhost server1.example.com server1

# The following lines are desirable for IPv6 capable hosts
::1 ip6-localhost ip6-loopback
fe00::0 ip6-localnet
ff00::0 ip6-mcastprefix
ff02::1 ip6-allnodes
ff02::2 ip6-allrouters
ff02::3 ip6-allhosts
Now run
echo server1.example.com > /etc/hostname
and reboot the system:
shutdown -r now
Afterwards, run
hostname -f
Both should show server1.example.com.
From now on you can use an SSH client such as PuTTY and connect from your workstation to your Debian Etch server and follow the remaining steps from this tutorial.

5. Edit /etc/apt/sources.list And Update Your Linux Installation
Edit /etc/apt/sources.list. Comment out the CD. It should look like this:
vi /etc/apt/sources.list
# deb cdrom:[Debian GNU/Linux 4.0 r0 _Etch_ – Official i386 NETINST Binary-1 20070407-11:29]/ etch contrib main

#deb cdrom:[Debian GNU/Linux 4.0 r0 _Etch_ – Official i386 NETINST Binary-1 20070407-11:29]/ etch contrib main

deb http://ftp2.de.debian.org/debian/ etch main
deb-src http://ftp2.de.debian.org/debian/ etch main

deb http://security.debian.org/ etch/updates main contrib
deb-src http://security.debian.org/ etch/updates main contrib
Then run
apt-get update
to update the apt package database and
apt-get upgrade
to install the latest updates (if there are any).

6. Install Some Software
Now we install a few packages that are needed later on. Run
apt-get install binutils cpp fetchmail flex gcc libarchive-zip-perl libc6-dev libcompress-zlib-perl libdb4.3-dev libpcre3 libpopt-dev linux-kernel-headers lynx m4 make ncftp nmap openssl perl perl-modules unzip zip zlib1g-dev autoconf automake1.9 libtool bison autotools-dev g++
(This command should go into one line!)

7. Quota
To install quota, run
apt-get install quota
Edit /etc/fstab. Mine looks like this (I added ,usrquota,grpquota to partition /dev/sda1 (mount point /; your device name might be /dev/hda1 or similar)):
vi /etc/fstab
# /etc/fstab: static file system information.
proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
/dev/sda1 / ext3 defaults,errors=remount-ro,usrquota,grpquota 0 1
/dev/sda5 none swap sw 0 0
/dev/hdc /media/cdrom0 udf,iso9660 user,noauto 0 0
/dev/fd0 /media/floppy0 auto rw,user,noauto 0 0
To enable quota, run these commands:
touch /quota.user /quota.group
chmod 600 /quota.*
mount -o remount /
quotacheck -avugm
quotaon -avug
8. DNS Server
apt-get install bind9
For security reasons we want to run BIND chrooted so we have to do the following steps:
/etc/init.d/bind9 stop
Edit the file /etc/default/bind9 so that the daemon will run as the unprivileged user bind, chrooted to /var/lib/named. Modify the line: OPTIONS=”-u bind” so that it reads OPTIONS=”-u bind -t /var/lib/named”:
vi /etc/default/bind9
OPTIONS=”-u bind -t /var/lib/named”
# Set RESOLVCONF=no to not run resolvconf
Create the necessary directories under /var/lib:
mkdir -p /var/lib/named/etc
mkdir /var/lib/named/dev
mkdir -p /var/lib/named/var/cache/bind
mkdir -p /var/lib/named/var/run/bind/run
Then move the config directory from /etc to /var/lib/named/etc:
mv /etc/bind /var/lib/named/etc
Create a symlink to the new config directory from the old location (to avoid problems when bind gets updated in the future):
ln -s /var/lib/named/etc/bind /etc/bind
Make null and random devices, and fix permissions of the directories:
mknod /var/lib/named/dev/null c 1 3
mknod /var/lib/named/dev/random c 1 8
chmod 666 /var/lib/named/dev/null /var/lib/named/dev/random
chown -R bind:bind /var/lib/named/var/*
chown -R bind:bind /var/lib/named/etc/bind
We need to modify /etc/default/syslogd so that we can still get important messages logged to the system logs. Modify the line: SYSLOGD=”” so that it reads: SYSLOGD=”-a /var/lib/named/dev/log”:
vi /etc/default/syslogd
# Top configuration file for syslogd

# Full documentation of possible arguments are found in the manpage
# syslogd(8).

# For remote UDP logging use SYSLOGD=”-r”
SYSLOGD=”-a /var/lib/named/dev/log”
Restart the logging daemon:
/etc/init.d/sysklogd restart
Start up BIND, and check /var/log/syslog for errors:
/etc/init.d/bind9 start

9. MySQL
In order to install MySQL, we run
apt-get install mysql-server mysql-client libmysqlclient15-dev
We want MySQL to listen on all interfaces, not just localhost, therefore we edit /etc/mysql/my.cnf and comment out the line bind-address =
vi /etc/mysql/my.cnf
#bind-address =
Then we restart MySQL:
/etc/init.d/mysql restart
Now check that networking is enabled. Run
netstat -tap
In the output you should see a line like this one:
tcp 0 0 *:mysql *:* LISTEN 3281/mysqld
mysqladmin -u root password yourrootsqlpassword
mysqladmin -h server1.example.com -u root password yourrootsqlpassword
10 Postfix With SMTP-AUTH And TLS
In order to install Postfix with SMTP-AUTH and TLS do the following steps:
apt-get install postfix libsasl2 sasl2-bin libsasl2-modules libdb3-util procmail
You will be asked two questions. Answer as follows:
General type of configuration? <– Internet Site
Mail name? <– server1.example.com
Then run
dpkg-reconfigure postfix
Again, you’ll be asked some questions:
General type of configuration? <– Internet Site
Where should mail for root go <– [blank]
Mail name? <– server1.example.com
Other destinations to accept mail for? (blank for none) <– server1.example.com, localhost.example.com, localhost.localdomain, localhost
Force synchronous updates on mail queue? <– No
Local networks? <–
Use procmail for local delivery? <– Yes
Mailbox size limit <– 0
Local address extension character? <– +
Internet protocols to use? <– all
Next, do this:
postconf -e ‘smtpd_sasl_local_domain =’
postconf -e ‘smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes’
postconf -e ‘smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous’
postconf -e ‘broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes’
postconf -e ‘smtpd_recipient_restrictions = permit_sasl_authenticated,permit_mynetworks,reject_unauth_destination’
postconf -e ‘inet_interfaces = all’
echo ‘pwcheck_method: saslauthd’ >> /etc/postfix/sasl/smtpd.conf
echo ‘mech_list: plain login’ >> /etc/postfix/sasl/smtpd.conf
Afterwards we create the certificates for TLS:
mkdir /etc/postfix/ssl
cd /etc/postfix/ssl/
openssl genrsa -des3 -rand /etc/hosts -out smtpd.key 1024
chmod 600 smtpd.key
openssl req -new -key smtpd.key -out smtpd.csr
openssl x509 -req -days 3650 -in smtpd.csr -signkey smtpd.key -out smtpd.crt
openssl rsa -in smtpd.key -out smtpd.key.unencrypted
mv -f smtpd.key.unencrypted smtpd.key
openssl req -new -x509 -extensions v3_ca -keyout cakey.pem -out cacert.pem -days 3650
Next we configure Postfix for TLS:
postconf -e ‘smtpd_tls_auth_only = no’
postconf -e ‘smtp_use_tls = yes’
postconf -e ‘smtpd_use_tls = yes’
postconf -e ‘smtp_tls_note_starttls_offer = yes’
postconf -e ‘smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/ssl/smtpd.key’
postconf -e ‘smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/ssl/smtpd.crt’
postconf -e ‘smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/ssl/cacert.pem’
postconf -e ‘smtpd_tls_loglevel = 1’
postconf -e ‘smtpd_tls_received_header = yes’
postconf -e ‘smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s’
postconf -e ‘tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom’
postconf -e ‘myhostname = server1.example.com’
The file /etc/postfix/main.cf should now look like this:
cat /etc/postfix/main.cf
# See /usr/share/postfix/main.cf.dist for a commented, more complete version
# Debian specific: Specifying a file name will cause the first
# line of that file to be used as the name. The Debian default
# is /etc/mailname.
#myorigin = /etc/mailname

smtpd_banner = $myhostname ESMTP $mail_name (Debian/GNU)
biff = no

# appending .domain is the MUA’s job.
append_dot_mydomain = no

# Uncomment the next line to generate “delayed mail” warnings
#delay_warning_time = 4h

# TLS parameters
smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/ssl/smtpd.crt
smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/ssl/smtpd.key
smtpd_use_tls = yes
smtpd_tls_session_cache_database = btree:${queue_directory}/smtpd_scache
smtp_tls_session_cache_database = btree:${queue_directory}/smtp_scache

# See /usr/share/doc/postfix/TLS_README.gz in the postfix-doc package for
# information on enabling SSL in the smtp client.

myhostname = server1.example.com
alias_maps = hash:/etc/aliases
alias_database = hash:/etc/aliases
myorigin = /etc/mailname
mydestination = server1.example.com, localhost.example.com, localhost.localdomain, localhost
relayhost =
mynetworks =
mailbox_command = procmail -a “$EXTENSION”
mailbox_size_limit = 0
recipient_delimiter = +
inet_interfaces = all
inet_protocols = all
smtpd_sasl_local_domain =
smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
smtpd_recipient_restrictions = permit_sasl_authenticated,permit_mynetworks,reject_unauth_destination
smtpd_tls_auth_only = no
smtp_use_tls = yes
smtp_tls_note_starttls_offer = yes
smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/ssl/cacert.pem
smtpd_tls_loglevel = 1
smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s
tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
Restart Postfix:
/etc/init.d/postfix restart
Authentication will be done by saslauthd. We have to change a few things to make it work properly. Because Postfix runs chrooted in /var/spool/postfix we have to do the following:
mkdir -p /var/spool/postfix/var/run/saslauthd
Now we have to edit /etc/default/saslauthd in order to activate saslauthd. Set START to yes and change the line OPTIONS=”-c” to OPTIONS=”-c -m /var/spool/postfix/var/run/saslauthd -r”:
vi /etc/default/saslauthd
# Settings for saslauthd daemon

# Should saslauthd run automatically on startup? (default: no)

# Which authentication mechanisms should saslauthd use? (default: pam)
# Available options in this Debian package:
# getpwent — use the getpwent() library function
# kerberos5 — use Kerberos 5
# pam — use PAM
# rimap — use a remote IMAP server
# shadow — use the local shadow password file
# sasldb — use the local sasldb database file
# ldap — use LDAP (configuration is in /etc/saslauthd.conf)
# Only one option may be used at a time. See the saslauthd man page
# for more information.
# Example: MECHANISMS=”pam”

# Additional options for this mechanism. (default: none)
# See the saslauthd man page for information about mech-specific options.

# How many saslauthd processes should we run? (default: 5)
# A value of 0 will fork a new process for each connection.

# Other options (default: -c)
# See the saslauthd man page for information about these options.
# Example for postfix users: “-c -m /var/spool/postfix/var/run/saslauthd”
# Note: See /usr/share/doc/sasl2-bin/README.Debian
OPTIONS=”-c -m /var/spool/postfix/var/run/saslauthd -r”
Now start saslauthd:
/etc/init.d/saslauthd start
To see if SMTP-AUTH and TLS work properly now run the following command:
telnet localhost 25
After you have established the connection to your Postfix mail server type
ehlo localhost
If you see the lines
everything is fine.
The output on my system looks like this:
server1:/etc/postfix/ssl# telnet localhost 25
Connected to localhost.localdomain.
Escape character is ‘^]’.
220 server1.example.com ESMTP Postfix (Debian/GNU)
ehlo localhost
250-SIZE 10240000
250 DSN
221 2.0.0 Bye
Connection closed by foreign host.
to return to the system’s shell.

11 Courier-IMAP/Courier-POP3
Run this to install Courier-IMAP/Courier-IMAP-SSL (for IMAPs on port 993) and Courier-POP3/Courier-POP3-SSL (for POP3s on port 995):
apt-get install courier-authdaemon courier-base courier-imap courier-imap-ssl courier-pop courier-pop-ssl courier-ssl gamin libgamin0 libglib2.0-0
You will be asked two questions:
Create directories for web-based administration ? <– No
SSL certificate required <– Ok
If you do not want to use ISPConfig, configure Postfix to deliver emails to a user’s Maildir*:
postconf -e ‘home_mailbox = Maildir/’
postconf -e ‘mailbox_command =’
/etc/init.d/postfix restart
12 Apache/PHP5
Now we install Apache:
apt-get install apache2 apache2-doc apache2-mpm-prefork apache2-utils libexpat1 ssl-cert
Next we install PHP5:
apt-get install libapache2-mod-php5 php5 php5-common php5-curl php5-dev php5-gd php5-idn php-pear php5-imagick php5-imap php5-json php5-mcrypt php5-memcache php5-mhash php5-ming php5-mysql php5-ps php5-pspell php5-recode php5-snmp php5-sqlite php5-tidy php5-xmlrpc php5-xsl
You will be asked the following question:
Continue installing libc-client without Maildir support? <– Yes
Next we edit /etc/apache2/mods-available/dir.conf:
vi /etc/apache2/mods-available/dir.conf
and change the DirectoryIndex line:
DirectoryIndex index.html index.htm index.shtml index.cgi index.php index.php3 index.pl index.xhtml
Edit /etc/apache2/ports.conf and add Listen 443:
vi /etc/apache2/ports.conf
Listen 80
Listen 443
Now we have to enable some Apache modules (SSL, rewrite, suexec, and include):
a2enmod ssl
a2enmod rewrite
a2enmod suexec
a2enmod include
Reload the Apache configuration:
/etc/init.d/apache2 force-reload

13.1 Disable PHP Globally
(If you do not plan to install ISPConfig on this server, please skip this section!)
In ISPConfig you will configure PHP on a per-website basis, i.e. you can specify which website can run PHP scripts and which one cannot. This can only work if PHP is disabled globally because otherwise all websites would be able to run PHP scripts, no matter what you specify in ISPConfig.
To disable PHP globally, we edit /etc/mime.types and comment out the application/x-httpd-php lines:
vi /etc/mime.types
#application/x-httpd-php phtml pht php
#application/x-httpd-php-source phps
#application/x-httpd-php3 php3
#application/x-httpd-php3-preprocessed php3p
#application/x-httpd-php4 php4
Edit /etc/apache2/mods-enabled/php5.conf and comment out the following lines:
vi /etc/apache2/mods-enabled/php5.conf

# AddType application/x-httpd-php .php .phtml .php3
# AddType application/x-httpd-php-source .phps

Then restart Apache:
/etc/init.d/apache2 restart

13 Proftpd
In order to install Proftpd, run
apt-get install proftpd ucf
You will be asked a question:
Run proftpd from inetd or standalone? <– standalone
Then open /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf and change UseIPv6 from on to off; otherwise you’ll get a warning like this when you start Proftpd:
– IPv6 getaddrinfo ‘server1.example.com’ error: Name or service not known
vi /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf
UseIPv6 off
For security reasons you can also add the following lines to /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf (thanks to Reinaldo Carvalho; more information can be found here: http://proftpd.org/localsite/Userguide/linked/userguide.html):
vi /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf
DefaultRoot ~
IdentLookups off
ServerIdent on “FTP Server ready.”
ISPConfig expects the configuration to be in /etc/proftpd.conf instead of /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf, therefore we create a symlink (you can skip this command if you don’t want to install ISPConfig):
ln -s /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd.conf
Then restart Proftpd:
/etc/init.d/proftpd restart
14 Webalizer
To install webalizer, just run
apt-get install webalizer

15 Synchronize the System Clock
It is a good idea to synchronize the system clock with an NTP (network time protocol) server over the internet. Simply run
apt-get install ntp ntpdate
and your system time will always be in sync.

16 Install Some Perl Modules Needed By SpamAssassin (Comes With ISPConfig)
apt-get install libhtml-parser-perl libdb-file-lock-perl libnet-dns-perl

17 ISPConfig
The configuration of the server is now finished, and if you wish you can now install ISPConfig on it. Please check out the ISPConfig installation manual: http://www.ispconfig.org/manual_installation.htm

17.1 A Note On SuExec
If you want to run CGI scripts under suExec, you should specify /var/www as the home directory for websites created by ISPConfig as Debian’s suExec is compiled with /var/www as Doc_Root. Run
/usr/lib/apache2/suexec -V
and the output should look like this:
server1:/etc/postfix/ssl# /usr/lib/apache2/suexec -V
-D AP_DOC_ROOT=”/var/www”
-D AP_HTTPD_USER=”www-data”
-D AP_LOG_EXEC=”/var/log/apache2/suexec.log”
-D AP_SAFE_PATH=”/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin”
-D AP_USERDIR_SUFFIX=”public_html”
Unless you install ISPConfig in expert mode and change the default web root (which is /var/www), you will be able to run CGI scripts under suExec with ISPConfig. The following screenshot is taken from an ISPConfig installation in expert mode. If you want to use ISPConfig, then don’t change the default web root:

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